The vision guiding these standards is that all students must have the opportunities
and resources to develop the language skills they need to pursue life's goals and to
participate fully as informed, productive members of society. These standards
assume that literacy growth begins before children enter school as they experience
and experiment with literacy activitiesóreading and writing, and associating spoken
words with their graphic representations. Recognizing this fact, these standards
encourage the development of curriculum and instruction that make productive use
of the emerging literacy abilities that children bring to school. Furthermore, the
standards provide ample room for the innovation and creativity essential to teaching
and learning. They are not prescriptions for particular curriculum or instruction.
Although we present these standards as a list, we want to emphasize that they are
not distinct and separable; they are, in fact, interrelated and should be considered as
Students read a wide range of print and non-print texts to build an
understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States
and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and
demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among
these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.
Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres
to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical,
ethical, aesthetic) of human experience.
Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate,
and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions
with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other
texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual
features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context,
Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g.,
conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of
audiences and for different purposes.
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different
writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different
audiences for a variety of purposes.
Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g.,
spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre
to create, critique, and discuss print and non-print texts.
Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and
questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize
data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and non-print texts, artifacts, people)
to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and
Students use a variety of technological and information resources (e.g.,
libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize
information and to create and communicate knowledge.
Students develop an understanding of and respect for diversity in language
use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic
regions, and social roles.
Students whose first language is not English make use of their first language
to develop competency in the English language arts and to develop
understanding of content across the curriculum.
Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical
members of a variety of literacy communities.
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own
purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of